PREDICTIONS ON THE EARTH CORE
And now, the long-awaited... "THEORY OF EVERYTHING"
by Eugene Sittampalam
Reviewed 27 April 2007
Is the Earth's inner core really rotating faster than the mantle and crust?
Yes, it is!
The inner core of the Earth is indeed rotating faster than the rest of the planet. At the equator, for instance, it moves under our feet by several kilometers a year.
Though an explanation has eluded geophysicists for many years, it is now a very simple one with the ultimate model of the Earth in perspective.
The inner core at the center of the Earth is essentially a ball of solid iron; about 1,200 kilometers in radius, it is the ash of nuclear decay. The outer core, due to the ongoing radioactivity therein (see below), is hot and fluid. The outer core is thus an ocean, about 2,300 kilometers deep, that surrounds the inner core.
According to a latest US study published in the British journal Nature (ref. 2), the inner core would make an extra revolution every 2,400 years at its current rate of rotation. This 'Letter to Nature' drew also worldwide press coverage. I thought it opportune to write to the elated and enthusiastic team of researchers to kindly check out some of my predictions as well in their continuing work.
Given below is a
reproduction of that letter to the team, which is led by
------------------- COPY OF LETTER TO J. E. VIDALE ET AL. -------------------
To: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Cc: xsong@LDEO.columbia.edu, firstname.lastname@example.org,
email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Dear Learned Gentlemen,
"We confirm that the inner core rotates as first claimed in 1996 (ref. 1) but at a considerably slower rate: 0.15 degree per year compared to 0.5-1.1 degree per year. ...Future studies of ICS [inner-core scattering] waves can be used to search for time-dependence in the differential inner-core rotation and to test the assumption that the differential rotation is about the Earth's north-south axis."
On reading this concluding paragraph in your recent letter to Nature (ref. 2), I simply had to write this letter to you. Please be good enough to give it a little of your valuable time.
Firstly, our universe of observation is a voidless and seamless continuum in mass-energy where phenomena cannot be considered in isolation if our explanations are to remain truly consistent across the realm. In stark contrast, present-day theories are ad hoc as they were conceived in pockets, the root cause for their incompatibility today.
The concept of gravity, for instance, if it holds for our planetary system, should also hold for the stellar systems we have subsequently come to observe as star clusters, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and galaxy superclusters. There can be no exceptions, limitations, gray areas, or compromise in physics. Black holes and dark matter are typical of the constructs of the stopgap and patchwork theories unduly dominating our thinking today. Not surprisingly, these figments have all now turned out to be absolute nonentities in the final and quantum theory of gravity. (It is understandable should you find these assertions outrageous, but do kindly bear with me until at least the end of the letter here.)
Secondly, on the subject matter, future studies will confirm the following predictions:
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>The differential inner-core rotation IS time dependent.
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>The inner core, corotating with the mantle in the current epoch, tends always to LEAD the mantle rotation.
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>The inner core's rotational axis today DOES NOT coincide with the Earth's north-south axis but falls outside even the geomagnetic axis.
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>The inner core consists of layers of surface growth that are uneven and without a definite axis of symmetry.
<![if !supportLists]>5. <![endif]>The inner-core layers are denser also in number at greater depths.
<![if !supportLists]>6. <![endif]>By virtue of 4 and 5, the inner core is anisotropic and more so at greater depths.
<![if !supportLists]>7. <![endif]>AND MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL: THERE IS AN ELECTRON-ANTINEUTRINO FLUX EVER EMANATING FROM THE OUTER CORE. MONITORING ITS INTENSITY WILL HELP US PREDICT MAJOR EARTHQUAKES EARLY AND RELIABLY.
These predictions follow readily from the simple model propounded in ref. 3, of which I am the author.
The explanation, briefly here:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The observable universe is an extension in three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>This universe of ours is dotted with enormous nuclear centers, or ‘cosmic cores,’ where fusion of matter prevails.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The extremely dense cosmic cores are akin to atomic nuclei in a stable yet vibrant solid medium.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Mass-energy is continually exchanged (recycled) between cores of the cosmic latticework in an unending saga of “little big bangs” and “little big crunches” at the cores.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>We inhabit a relatively placid region surrounded by, but far removed from, cosmic cores. (We would not have evolved to the stage that we have in a region close to a cosmic core: The violence and the intensity of radiation would be far too great and the time scale far too small for most life forms, let alone for the current stage of their evolution.)
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Each cosmic core accretes matter only to fuse it (in a slow crunch) and eject it out (in a hasty bang) again.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The cosmic cores thus incessantly feed each other in a now observable steady-state universe.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The highly fused ejectum from the core expands out in an arc, as it speeds away from the center, at or above escape velocity. We see this early stage of cosmic evolution as a close group of quasars – the progenitor of the galaxy supercluster. (Even if it be outside our field of study, do we not ever wonder why galaxy clusters are highly periodic and fly in formation at mind-boggling speed – our Local Group, for instance, at six hundred kilometers per second, or more than a million miles per hour?! See, for instance, Ref. 4.)
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Nuclear fission is enhanced in a low-pressure medium, just as much as fusion is promoted by high pressure.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The high speed of expulsion from the cosmic core takes the ejected nuclear matter into the thinning outer regions.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>In the speeding ejectum, each large lump, which is the quasar, splits into halves in succession.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The process of bifurcation of the quasar goes on until the fragments – individual galactic nuclei – come within the size limit determined by the regional field pressure the nuclear lumps are engulfed in.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The single quasar thus splits successively to form a group of galactic cores.(We now observe and call these active galactic nuclei, or AGN.)
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The group of galactic cores goes eventually to form – the galaxy cluster.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The single core ejectum, generally consisting of a group of quasars, transmutes as – the galaxy supercluster.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The supercluster is thus a fast moving shell of matter expanding radially from its core of origin. Distant superclusters will thus appear to be perched on enormous bubble-like voids.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Being periodic ejections from the mother core, the supercluster siblings will be equally spaced. The space between them will also be the most devoid of matter in the cosmos. (The sheer uniformity of these spacings observed today is even amazing to astrophysicists and remains a challenge to their standard model.)
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Bifurcations generally taper off for the AGN as the ambient field pressure levels off. In this vast mid region between cosmic cores, the galaxies stabilize, but the nuclear activities of individual galactic cores continue.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Superclusters and clusters of galaxies are thus not cosmologically recent epochs as generally believed today.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The cosmic cores form the reference (“rest”) frame of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation that we now detect.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Veiled by the quasars outside, cosmic cores escape our direct observation. This is akin to the galactic core being masked by the stars of the central bulge.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Again, the single quasar, moving through the thinning region away from the cosmic core, successively bifurcates to form a group of galactic cores. The group of galactic cores goes to form the galaxy cluster.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Each galactic core, in turn, spews out matter periodically, spawning – the stellar cores.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Each of the larger stellar cores bifurcates successively to form – the star cluster. The last of these separations that fell just short of escape velocity are what we now see as binaries, ternaries, and so on, in the mature star cluster.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>In summary: Stars are generally found in clusters; the star cluster transmutes from the (large) stellar core; stellar cores are derived from the galactic core; galaxies are generally found in clusters; the galaxy cluster transmutes from the quasar; quasars are generally found in clusters, or groups; the galaxy supercluster transmutes from the quasar group; and quasar groups are derived from the ultimate cosmic core.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>What worlds the latticework of cosmic cores extend into are beyond observation and hence – beyond the scope of physics.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Galaxies and stars, therefore, are born primarily by fragmentation – and not by agglomeration as popularly believed today.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Planets and moons are basically stars, or star fragments, that cooled off faster due to their small size. Their molten cores are thus nuclear where net fissioning of matter would continue to varying degree.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Nuclear fusion is thus the primary reaction only at the cosmic cores; and fission predominates the scene everywhere else down the line – in quasars, galaxies, stars, planets, and moons.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>We are today speeding away from the cosmic core of our birth (in a highly fused and low-entropy state) – at more than a million miles per hour through absolute space, the space of the CMB – toward the cosmic core of our demise (in a highly fissioned and high-entropy state).
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>And the cycle repeats.
Thus, we see nuclear fission to be the primary energy-producing reaction in planet Earth. The Earth today has at its center a solid inner core surrounded by an outer core of molten radioactive matter. Both cores rotate in the same general sense as the outside mantle, the total blob of matter having got its spin at inception with the rest of the solar system.
The pressure caused by fission in the outer core compacts the inner core, which action also boosts the spin of the inner core (to conserve angular momentum). The mantle that envelops the nuclear fission reactor is affected in reverse and thereby trails the core spin.
The process of nuclear fission is an unexcelled source of intense neutrons. These abundant neutrons, in turn, undergo the final decay to produce protons and electrons, which particles rotate in net with the rest of the outer core material. The net flow of the agile electrons produces a magnetic field. By the pinch effect, this seminal field constrains also the other electrons of the high-conductivity medium progressively into parallel flow. The magnetic field in the outer core is thus constantly enhanced and maintained from decay. We detect this as the geomagnetic field outside. The geomagnetic axis may thus be considered a manifestation of the overall rotational axis of the liquid outer core.
Also produced in the decay of neutrons are electron antineutrinos, which go to effect a countergravitational field. It is this subtle repulsive field that drives the Earth's tectonic plates and also keeps the Moon in stable orbit under perturbations without the natural satellite crashing into the Earth – a stability of the ages in defiance of classical theory; see also ref. 5.
A SUDDEN AND ABNORMALLY HIGH PEAK IN THE ANTINEUTRINO FLUX FROM THE EARTH CORE COULD HELP WARN US EARLY AND RELIABLY OF AN IMPENDING MAJOR EARTHQUAKE IN THE REGION. (California and Japan, typically, could benefit immensely by having electron-antineutrino detectors focused on the Earth core. These monitors would out-perform all our present ones for deep-seated earthquakes and revolutionize the field of seismology.)
The boundary layer at one radial end of the liquid core corotates at a common speed with the solid core, while, at the other end, a similar corotation takes place with the mantle. The geomagnetic axis will thus always be intermediate between the solid-core axis and the mantle axis. However, the viscous drag being much smaller in the lighter, radially outer region, the liquid-core motion is influenced more by the solid core.
The solid core grows gradually with time with deposits of heavy nuclear waste. But the mantle today, due both to its mass and diameter, has by far the greater angular momentum compared with the cores. The natural tendency, therefore, is for BOTH cores to get viscously dragged into eventual corotation with the mantle at a common speed and about a common axis.
However, over the eons, the solid core's spin frequency occasionally gets into synchronism with one of its own natural frequencies of oscillation – only to unleash itself into a large amplitude of oscillation. Like a poorly balanced car wheel acting up at a certain critical speed, the solid core resonates, creating a relatively rarefied space between itself and the liquid core. An enhanced breakdown of the fissile liquid core material thus gets triggered in the newly created space; and the mantle strains to contain the increased violence within. (Lower the damping effect on the solid core at resonance, greater is its amplitude of oscillation and more devastating the effect seeping out into the open – earthquakes and volcanism; the basic mechanism being the same for the nova and the supernova.) In recoil, the solid core gets highly compacted and boosted in frequencies both of spin and natural oscillation. The synchronism could thus last a long time if the two frequencies do not differ much as they rise. With continued growth of the core over time, however, the spin and natural frequencies generally decrease at differing rates. The two would thus bow out of their synchronized act – but only to cross swords again and again at seemingly random times for repeat performances at other modes of oscillation. (A natural satellite may well be born from its own central body during the violent early history of the latter body. In the case of a planet, for instance, a good fraction of its young and thin mantle can get blown out into space only for some of the matter to fall back as a moon. Not surprisingly, there is very good evidence that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle in such a manner; ref. 6.)
The jolting of the inner core at resonance can also dislodge the core from its 'bearings' and cause it to even flip over bodily if the violence is strong and prolonged enough. The spin magnitude of the flipping core, though, would keep on a general rise through the intermediate stages of compaction. As the spasmodic shifting of the solid-core axis continues under the unabating violence, layers of the liquid core, too, get dragged along with the solid core. And outside, on the Earth's surface, the related wandering of the geomagnetic poles all over the global countryside takes place, as fossil records now increasingly confirm. (In the contemporary solar system, the non-alignment of magnetic and rotational axes of the other planets and of the Sun, too, tell a common tale of the inner violence.) Eventually, though, over a period of relative quiet, even the counterrotating core gets viscously dragged toward corotation and alignment with the mantle.
Thus, for geomagnetic field reversals, we may conclude that:
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The reversals are sudden (on a geologic time scale).
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The time between reversals is highly variable with no seeming regularities or periodicities in the pattern of reversals. (This is attributable to the solid core's multiple modes and frequencies of natural oscillation, which also keep changing with core growth.)
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>A long interval of one polarity (when the solid core is corotating with the mantle) is followed by a short interval of the opposite polarity (when the core is counterrotating).
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>During a reversal, the strength of the dipole component shrinks to zero while maintaining its orientation. (This is when the counterrotating inner core drags enough outer core layers to nullify the earlier dipole field.) The field then grows again to its former strength in the opposite direction. (This is when the inner core drags almost all of the outer core layers into corotation with it.)
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The mantle eventually drags the solid core from counterrotation, through zero rotation, and back into corotation with it once more. (This, of course, is effected through the liquid-core layers ably assisted by the corrugated core-mantle boundary.)
Finally, the growth of the solid inner core being subject to sporadic compaction spurts of also varying intensity and duration, the inner core material will be anisotropic and in the form of layers. Moreover, these epochs of violence being less frequent now in the mature Earth than during its infancy and youth, the outermost portion of the inner core will be less anisotropic than at greater depths. These would also corroborate the statement in your earlier letter to Nature (ref. 7): "The outermost portion of the inner core has been inferred to possess layering and to be less anisotropic than at greater depths."
Hence, the predictions, as given above, follow for planet Earth.
I am also presently
involved in getting NASA into a similar study – but well outside the Earth's
mantle. My letters to them resulted in a response from GSFC (
I shall be most
happy to send you some complimentary copies of my book (ref. 3) on hearing of
your interest. Not surprisingly, it requires only high-school physics to fully
understand the final theory. For an overview, please care to look up the book's
website: www.sittampalam.net. (The
ADDENDA therein, too, would help.)
A reply from you would be much appreciated. Please do also write for any clarifications.
Thank you and best wishes on all your endeavors at the frontiers of geophysics and science.
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Song, X. D. & Richards,
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>Vidale,
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>Sittampalam, E., And now, the long-awaited... "Theory of
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>Peebles, P. J. E., Principles
of Physical Cosmology,
<![if !supportLists]>5. <![endif]>Sittampalam, E., Pivotal Gravity Test At Eclipse (2000); see NASA Tests.
<![if !supportLists]>6. <![endif]>Encyclopaedia Britannica, Earth, vol. 17, p. 604 (1994).
<![if !supportLists]>7. <![endif]>Vidale,
– End of letter –