Text Box: The cosmological redshift is a systematic shift observed in the electromagnetic spectra of all the far galaxies without exception.
It is found that the wavelength shift toward the red increases with the distance of the galaxies from the Earth.
Refer, for instance: Encyclopædia Britannica).
Text Box: Astronomers from the State University of New York, Stony Brook, have won a race to the edge of the universe. ... NASA released data from this observation, called Hubble Deep Field South... The farthest galaxy spotted previously had a redshift of 5.64, meaning that the expansion of the universe has stretched its light by a factor of 6.64. [Ken] Lanzetta and [Amos] Yahil now claim to have found 14 galaxies with redshifts of between 5 and 10, and another five candidates with redshifts larger than 10. ... "We are getting back to a significant fraction of the age of the universe," says Yahil. "These are the last few percent to the big bang." If he and Lanzetta are right, galaxies and stars formed much earlier in cosmic history than most theorists had imagined. ... 
And theorist Jim Peebles of Princeton University says, "Lanzetta and Yahil have demonstrated a good track record for redshift estimates in the [Hubble Deep Field North], so I expect people will take the observations in the south seriously, but not [consider them] definitive." ...
But if the findings do hold up, they will add to mounting evidence that the early universe was a far more active place than astronomers had thought. 
When the Hubble Space Telescope observed Deep Field North, just over 3 years ago, the NICMOS camera wasn’t installed yet, and the most remote objects remained invisible because all of their light is shifted into the infrared. Based on Deep Field North, astronomers concluded that few stars had formed at redshifts larger than 3. "That notion is beginning to crumble," says Yahil. ...
How the new data will affect theorists' picture of the cosmic structure formation isn't clear yet. "I think the conclusions are not a problem for the usual ideas if the galaxies at a redshift of 10 are quite rare," says Peebles. But as astronomers push farther out and back in time, the usual ideas may come under more and more pressure.
Galaxies Seen at the Universe’s Dawn, Govert Schilling, Science 283, 19&21 (1999)
Text Box: From the 203rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia (4 to 8 Jan 2004):
"It's not quite time for theorists to panic, but we're getting there," said  Astronomer Roberto Abraham of the University of Toronto, Canada, after announcing his group's discovery of a startling number of mature galaxies in the young universe. But although the finding seemed to undermine the standard view of how matter assembled, theorists have respectfully declined to sound the alarm.  ... And according to reigning theoretical models, clumps and webs of matter grew until galaxies arose inside massive halos of invisible dark matter. In that "hierarchical" picture, shards of protogalaxies took billions of years to merge and assemble the grand spirals and giant elliptical blobs we see today.
The new results seem to contradict that neat idea. 
Early Galaxies Baffle Observers, But Theorists Shrug, Robert Irion, Science 303, 460 (2004)
Text Box: A gamma-ray burst detected in April by NASA’s Swift [http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/swift/swiftsc.html] orbiter has a higher redshift (z = 8.26 ± 0.08) than any other celestial entity for which a redshift has been measured – except for the cosmic microwave background (CMB)…  provides a glimpse of the cosmos just 625 million years after the Big Bang. Beyond revealing that such stars already existed back then and providing a first approximation to their formation rate, the discovery adds a potentially powerful new probe to the search for the first generation of stars… (N. R. Tanvir et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.1577; R. Salvaterra et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.1578.)
Bertram Schwarzschild, Earliest astrophysical object yet seen, Physics Today, 2 July 2009
Text Box: A massive object, such as a galaxy, that happened to lie near our line of sight from Earth to a distant astronomical source can gravitationally deflect the path of light from that source. As a result, the image that reaches us may be displaced, distorted, magnified and multiplied. These cosmic optical effects, known as gravitational lensing, have been the subject of increasingly intense study by astronomers since the discovery of the first multiple images [Walsh, D. et al. Nature 279, 381-384 (1979)] of a quasi-stellar object, or quasar, in 1979. ...
Because a strong lensing effect requires a rather precise chance alignment between the distant source and the foreground lensing object (Fig. 1 [not reproduced here]), such systems are quite rare. For example, a few quasars in every thousand [King, L. J. et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 307, 225-235 (1999)] and only around one star in a million in nearby galaxies [Paczynski, B. Astrophys. J. 304, 1-5 (1986)] are strongly lensed. Gravitational-lens systems have thus been highly prized discoveries. But on page 923 of this issue, Wyithe and Loeb argue that a substantial fraction – up to a third – of a recently discovered population of quasars are strongly lensed objects. These quasars are the most distant astronomical objects known and the light from them, emitted billions of years ago, enables us to probe the history of the very early Universe. If Wyithe and Loeb are right, their conclusions will be both good and bad news for cosmologists: some of the problems in understanding the formation and evolution of structure in the early Universe will be made easy, others more difficult. ...
Through a lens brightly, Edwin L. Turner (Princeton University Observatory), Nature 417, 905-906 (2002)
Go to Part 2 of 2 (Dark Energy)
A Synopsis The Cosmos The Spin
ADDENDA The Cosmological Redshift The Neutrino
Two-Slit Tests The Galaxy Nuclear Reactions
NASA Tests Gravity The Sun
KamLAND Test Anti-Gravity The Pulsar
UCLA Test Relativity Superconductivity
Q and A Mass-Energy Fusion Energy
 Eugene Sittampalam
 27 October 2009