Text Box: Analytically, as was seen in Part 1:
• The radiaton is the per-cycle quantum of any photon and is the smallest amount of mass-energy detectable.
(Whatever be the 'fundamental' particle we probe, its ultimate signal comes to us as only a photon effect in the detector.)
• The universe – classical matter and vacuum alike – is simply an ocean of vibrant radiatons.
• Classical matter, essentially the atomic nucleus, is where the radiatons are “condensed” and are vibrant at sub-c speeds.
• And classical vacuum, essentially the outside of the atomic nucleus, is where they are “evaporated” and are vibrant at speed c.
Text Box: Then [Fermi] delivered his verdict in a quiet, even voice. "There are two ways of doing calculations in theoretical physics", he said. "One way, and this is the way I prefer, is to have a clear physical picture of the process that you are calculating. ..."
A meeting with Enrico Fermi, Freeman Dyson (Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton), Nature 427, 297 (2004)
Text Box: Hence, with reference to Fig 4, above, which depicts a plane through the center, O, of the atom:
• A body radiaton moving along the line BA strikes another body radiaton at point A at some instant in time.
• Due to symmetry of movement about the radial OB, the first radiaton’s vibrational amplitude, a, at that time will be given by BA. 
• By a similar symmetry about radial OA, the second radiaton’s encounter with the first will have an effective mode that is but a mirror image of the first one’s mode about OA.
• Ft, the tangential component of the force of impact on each radiaton, will balance out between the pair.
• Fr, the radially inward force required for dynamic equilibrium of the pair, will be provided by an incoming ambient radiaton 
at that point in space and instant in time.  
• Such impacts from the incoherent ambient radiatons statistically provide the equalizing effect needed to counter the radially outward force of the body radiatons at every radial level and instant in time around the entire atom. 

And the atom remains in a state of statistical equilibrium. 

 At the point of impact, A, outside the nucleus, the momentum of body radiaton changes by 2mc (that is, by mc at impact plus another mc at recoil). This occurs per period of 4a/c, where, again, a is the radiaton amplitude (and 4a would be the wavelength). 

 As per classical mechanics, this rapid succession of blows, or impulses, at point A is equivalent in effect to (or is replaceable by) a constant force at A; and the magnitude of this force, F, will be given simply by the rate of momentum change, or

F = (2mc)/(4a/c)                    (1) 

 Therefore, the force Fr at point A will simply be the sum of the radial components of F from the two body radiatons. 
Or, equivalently, from Fig 4, 
(1/2)Fr = F sina                    (2)

where,   sina = a/r                (3)

Whence, from (1), (2), and (3),
Fr = mc2/r                            (4)

Note: Today, in classical mechanics, the force, mc2/r, is seen as the very same force a body of mass m would experience as centripetal force if it were in circular orbit at speed c and radius r. All macroscopic laws and formulae have such underpinnings in the quantum world of the radiaton. The discoveries, though, should not be taken as something surprising or interesting here, but, rather, as something expected or even demanded. 

 Expression (4) gives the universal force field of the atom outside of the nucleus in an isotropic ambient field. 

It should be noted, however, that expression (4) would be inapplicable at or near the nuclear surface. That is, in the region of the nuclear surface, the radiaton only just attains terminal speed c at mid mode. Therefore, even though the momentum changes by 2mc, the average time factor for the change in this region remains appreciably larger than the value of 4a/c used in the above derivation of F and thereby of Fr.

Analysis of the nuclear force field continues in the next part.
          Go to Part 3 of 6
A Synopsis The Cosmos The Spin
ADDENDA The Cosmological Redshift The Neutrino
Two-Slit Tests The Galaxy Nuclear Reactions
NASA Tests Gravity The Sun
KamLAND Test Anti-Gravity The Pulsar
UCLA Test Relativity Superconductivity
Q and A Mass-Energy Fusion Energy
 Eugene Sittampalam
 27 June 2007