The Galactic Superwind



Eugene Sittampalam




Date:          25 July 2005

Subject:     Now, the Galactic Wind


High-velocity galactic outflows, driven by intense bursts of star formation and black hole accretion, are processes invoked by current theories of galaxy formation... From existing observational evidence... it is unclear whether such outflows are localized to regions of intense star formation just a few kiloparsecs in extent, or whether they instead have a significant impact on the entire galaxy and its surroundings. Here we present two-dimensional spectroscopy of a star-forming galaxy... This screen was ejected from the galaxy during a starburst several 108 years earlier and has subsequently swept up gas from the surrounding intergalactic medium and cooled. This demonstrates the galaxy-wide impact of high-redshift superwinds.

The discovery of a galaxy-wide superwind from a young massive galaxy at redshift z ≈ 3

R. J. Wilman, J. Gerssen, R. G. Bower, S. L. Morris, R. Bacon, P. T. de Zeeuw and R. L. Davies, Nature 436, 227-229 (14 July 2005)


Drs R J Wilman, J Gerssen, R G Bower and S L Morris, Department of Physics, University of Durham, UK

Dr R Bacon, CRAL-Observatoire, Saint-Genis-Laval, France

Dr P T de Zeeuw, Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands

Dr R L Davies, Astrophysics, University of Oxford, UK


Dear Learned Researchers,

Congratulations on your revelatory findings. Based on the true structure of the observable universe, such galaxy-wide winds will be the norm, with nary an exception in principle. Your continued investigations here will only confirm the fact. In general, with improving instruments and observational techniques, the superwind (emanating from all around the galaxy) should become increasingly evident in all galaxies; the young and massive one here having vividly given you the unambiguous signal.  


To see how all these fit into the ultimate picture, do care to check out The Cosmos, The Galaxy and other linked pages therein. Any critique of the model would be most gratefully received.

Wish you all the best in your endeavours to establish this final paradigm.


Eugene Sittampalam


PS: The solar wind, the stellar wind, the star-cluster wind, the galactic wind and the galaxy-cluster wind are all realities out there. The ones still remaining to be discovered are calling out to competent and dedicated teams of your calibre. Do heed their call!  


"I found myself getting really angry," one cosmologist said after reading [Sittampalam's] paper. "It must have hit some real insecurity."

Discover, April 2002; pages 66 to 71.


–   End of Letter  –


The above was forwarded that week to some university professors for comment. Quite unexpectedly, a senior and well-known professor at Princeton cared to respond. A paragraph from my follow-up letter is given below (in red) since it refers to the most important ramification of the discovery. Though given in the linked pages, it’s worth the reemphasis here. Also appended is the postscript in reference to the brick wall that is peer-review today!


Finally, a thought on the lately reported galactic superwind. Here, more importantly, one should look at the ramifications on the flip side of the breakthrough discovery. The backpressure from the superwind, that is, directed toward the galactic center, would be stupendous as it intensifies as the inverse square of radius. Thus, increased speeds of orbital bodies about the galactic center and increased nuclear reactions in the galactic hub – the latter enhanced many orders of times more than what classical gravity would have us believe – become direct consequences. Hence, clearly, there'll be no more need for recourse to dark matter and black holes anywhere in our physical universe.


PS: Times when mainstream publication of anything (and getting away with it!) was not much of a problem...


Newton's theory of gravitation was a landmark in science but might easily have fallen foul of modern referees demanding explanations. ... The idea of action at a distance could only be a kind of magic. Forces were transmitted from one object to another only on contact. So what would have happened if, in due course, the Royal Society had sent the manuscript of the Principia out to referees in the modern manner? The chances are that the exercise would have recruited a good many quizzical referees' reports. Anybody can write the dialogue; "by what means, pray, does the author fancy that this magic can be contrived over the great distance between the Sun and Jupiter and without the lapse of time?" ...

Is the Principia publishable now? Editor, Nature 376, 385 (3 August 1995)


One difficulty is that general relativity allows black holes to exist, with all the disbelief that that requires of the rest of us. The most serious difficulty is that, after more than a quarter of a century, there is still no way of reconciling Einstein's theory of gravitation, his general theory of relativity, with quantum physics. A generation of talented people, not so much an army as a company, has beaten its head against that problem without much success...

Beyond Einstein's theory of gravitation? Editor, Nature 374, 759 (27 April 1995)



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