Part 3 of 3
Text Box: Reviewed 3 June 2008   
Requests for clarifications to eugenesittampalam (at) gmail.com – most welcome!
Text Box: Superconductivity
(For the full text, please see book sections 5.10 and 5.11)
Text Box: Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explained superconductivity seen in conventional metals when cooled below the transition temperature, Tc, back in 1957. The essential ingredient of their theory is the interaction between freely moving electrons and the lattice of ions that form the structural basis of the solid. This interaction leads to a net attraction and pairing of electrons. ...
Electrons pair themselves, Joe Orenstein (Department of Physics, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA), Nature 401, 333 & 335 (23 September 1999)
Text Box: In principle, the motion of an electron around the atomic  nucleus is superconduction.
As long as the breathing electron is in sync with the breathing nucleus, the motion remains permanent. 
Likewise, the valence electron binding two or more nuclei in a molecule or an electron around a grain constituting such atoms and molecules, exhibits superconduction. There is, however, a nonzero tendency for the nucleus and electron to each move in its own south direction, which is generally inhibited by environmental constraints.

All of the above can generally occur at any temperature. At high temperatures, however, the electrons would cease to superconduct, when they fly off orbit, or ionize.

A superconducting macroscopic material is not any different, in principle. Here, the whole material itself would become, in effect, a carbon-like chain molecule or strand.

The figures below should complement the picture.
Text Box: High-Temperature Superconductivity
(For the full text, please see book section 5.12)
Text Box: After 2 decades of monumental effort, including two reports appearing online this week in Science (www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1134742 and www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1133411), 
physicists still cannot explain high-temperature superconductivity. But they may have identified the puzzles they have yet to solve. 
HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY TURNS 20: High Tc: The Mystery That Defies Solution, Adrian Cho, Science 314, 1072-1075 (17 November 2006)
Text Box: Seen in ceramic superconductors, stripes are confounding may theorists but exciting a few as possible clue to how these materials work…
"I was very skeptical [of the stripe theory]," says [Takashi] Imai, a young assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The evidence for the stripes was patchy, and the theory "looked too simple to be true." But that was before last summer, when Imai and his students began running a set of experiments for months on end that showed clear hints that charges were indeed running in defined lanes. By November, the group knew they were onto something big and resolved to double check every detail. "We kept running experiments 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. I skipped Thanksgiving and Christmas to keep taking data," he says, adding casually, "This is a competitive field."
Competitive is an understatement. Deciphering the mystery of high-temperature superconductivity has been the prime obsession among condensed matter physicists since 1986, when the first superconducting ceramics were discovered. A definitive answer remains elusive. But Imai's discovery along with a couple of other recent reports is giving stripe proponents a big boost. At meetings around the world, "one of the main themes we're seeing is stripes," says John Kirtley, a superconductivity researcher at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York. "More and more people are starting to believe it." ...
Could Charge Stripes Be a Key to Superconductivity? R. F. Service, Science 283, 1106-1108 (19 February 1999)
Text Box: When two macroscopic bodies are in contact in the usual sense of the word, little do we realize that at the subatomic level 
there is nothing of the sort. The two bodies are simply in a state where the speed-c exchanges between their constituent subatomic particles are at counterpoise overall. Individual nuclei and electrons thus remain far from bodily contact, 
with only the vacuum energy mediating all (push-pull) interactions between them. (See also book section 7.02.)

In the ideal superconductor, the electrons are preferentially and perfectly oriented, with the electrons' equatorial exchanges with the vacuum field most intense transverse to the electron flow. The pulses of efflux from the spiraling electrons would thus cause an abnormal countergravitational effect (push) on any outside matter, that is, an effect not observed in the non-superconducting state.
The pulses of influx, causing any abnormal gravitational effect (pull), on the other hand, would be relatively ineffective due to asynchronism, as we shall presently see.

Of course, this fact should equally apply when polar exchanges are concerned; and it does. In the typical proton-proton fusion (see Nuclear Reactions), attraction (for union) becomes possible only under synchronous conditions of the two particles (at short range); under any asynchronism, the two only get repelled even from contact. A macroscopic analogy would be a body being levitated by an array of air jet pulses of ejection and suction. When the pulse frequency is low, the body would rise and fall (without net displacement over the cycle); when the frequency matches that of the body's vibration, the body would resonate (again, without net displacement); and when the frequency increases further, the body would rise in net, with inertia inhibiting it to descend appreciably between emission pulses. In this last case, in other words, emission would cause a displacement which the subsequent suction half cycle would not be able to counter, or pull back from that farther distance, over the half cycle.
Nature thus abhors asynchronism, causing only a general repulsion between bodies incompatible.

Hence, in the superconductor, the reaction becomes one of repulsion in overall effect, since the frequency of the electrons would generally be asynchronous and higher than the vibrational frequency of any outside body of matter, including air molecules. 
And this countergravitational effect, mediated by the vacuum field, would extend in a column perpendicular to the electron flow.
(See also The Neutrino for more on the equatorial emissions of subatomic particles.)
Text Box: Supersolidity
Please access: www.sittampalam.net/Supersolidity.htm
      Back to Part 1 of 3
THE UNIFICATION OF PHYSICS ILLUSTRATIONS
A Synopsis The Cosmos The Spin
ADDENDA The Cosmological Redshift The Neutrino
Two-Slit Tests The Galaxy Nuclear Reactions
NASA Tests Gravity The Sun
KamLAND Test Anti-Gravity The Pulsar
UCLA Test Relativity Superconductivity
Q and A Mass-Energy Fusion Energy
 Eugene Sittampalam
 3 June 2008