To:   ,


Subject:      Protostars

Date:          Monday 12 September 2005



The formation process for stars with masses several times that of the Sun is still unclear... the presence of disks around massive young stellar objects is still uncertain... Here we report near-infrared imaging polarimetry that reveals an outflow/disk system around the Becklin-Neugebauer protostellar object, which has a mass of at least seven solar masses...

A circumstellar disk associated with a massive protostellar object, Zhibo Jiang, Motohide Tamura, Misato Fukagawa, Jim Hough, Phil Lucas, Hiroshi Suto, Miki Ishii and Ji Yang,

Nature 437, 112-115 (1 September 2005)


... the formation of high-mass (over eight times the Sun's mass, Mo) stars remains poorly understood... Here we report the presence of a flattened disk-like structure around a massive 15Mo protostar in the Cepheus A region...

A disk of dust and molecular gas around a high-mass protostar, Nimesh A. Patel, Salvador Curiel, T. K. Sridharan, Qizhou Zhang, Todd R. Hunter, Paul T. P. Ho, José M. Torrelles, James M. Moran, José F. Gómez and Guillem Anglada, Nature 437, 109-111 (1 September 2005)


Dr Zhibo Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences



Dr Nimesh A Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics



Dear Learned Researchers,

Forgive my intrusion here, but star formation has now a simple model reminiscent of cosmic and nuclear processes we know of down the line in this fractal universe of ours. High-mass protostars become thus an essential part of star cluster evolution. These giants are generally found in the cluster’s central region where the high ambient pressure field could maintain their size. Your breakthrough discoveries of such objects are indeed most reassuring; and continued investigations should reveal this central concentration. It would also be in keeping with what I have propounded as the true structure of the observable universe. (Please see The Cosmos and The Galaxy for a short, illustrative description of the formation process for galaxies and stars.)


Briefly, stellar matter is ejected periodically from the galactic core, as in the stellar nova. Each large chunk in the nuclear ejectum bifurcates, successively, as it moves through the thinning pressure field away from the galactic center. The final fragments evolve as stars, dwarfs, and planets of the cluster. Following the formation epoch, an equatorial disk generally forms around individual bodies, depending on their spin. It occurs by outflow (radiation wind, essentially of protons, electrons, and electron antineutrinos, with bipolar peaks and periodic outbursts) and inflow (fallback and accretion of matter from around) into the gravitational well caused by the spin. (A star thus gives rise to its circumstellar disk and never the other way around!) And, naturally, the most massive protostars (relatively fleeting in existence, before they splinter further) would abound while still close to their birthing pool, the galactic hub (from which the evolving clusters with sufficient escape velocity spiral out).


For the complete picture, do care to check out the website Any comment, especially critique, would be gratefully received.

Thank you and best wishes,

Eugene Sittampalam


PS: If we have the greatness of heart and the openness of mind to consider even such opposing ‘outside' views, the true structure of the observable universe – simple and all too obvious – will transpire before us all much sooner than we may now think. Why not make that sooner, possibly now, and make basic research more secure and fulfilling to students and institutions alike; and justifiable to all concerned, including the innocent taxpayer? Cheers!


"I found myself getting really angry,"

one cosmologist said after reading [Sittampalam's] paper.

"It must have hit some real insecurity."

Discover, April 2002; pages 66 to 71



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