Text Box: Reviewed 15 January 2008   
Requests for clarifications to eugenesittampalam (at) gmail.com – most welcome!
Text Box: On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate  measurements of the Earth-moon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earth-moon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. ...
It also is worthwhile to mention the observation of an apparent free libration of the moon. Separate from librations driven by the time-varying torques of the Earth and sun (the forced physical librations), three modes of free libration exist. One of these rotational modes is analogous to the Earth's Chandler wobble (but with a 74-year period), another is an oscillation of the pole direction in space (in addition to the uniform precession), and the last is a 2.9-year oscillation in rotation speed (longitude). Without suitable recent exciting torques, and because of the substantial dissipation, the amplitudes of these free librations should have damped to zero. However, the LLR data show an apparent rotational free libration in longitude for the moon with a 2.9-year period and amplitude of 1 arcsec... Seismic events on the moon also cannot explain the observed amplitude. ...
Lunar Laser Ranging: A Continuing Legacy of the Apollo Program, J. O. Dickey (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA) et al., Science 265, 482-490 (1994)
Text Box: Predictions on the Libration and Bobbing of the Moon
For the full and final explanation of these lunar phenomena, and predictions, please do refer to my letters to James Williams, Dale Boggs, and Jean Dickey of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, reproduced in NASA.Tests.
      Back to Part 1 of 4
A Synopsis The Cosmos The Spin
ADDENDA The Cosmological Redshift The Neutrino
Two-Slit Tests The Galaxy Nuclear Reactions
NASA Tests Gravity The Sun
KamLAND Test Anti-Gravity The Pulsar
UCLA Test Relativity Superconductivity
Q and A Mass-Energy Fusion Energy
 Eugene Sittampalam
 15 January 2008