Text Box: To Determine the Effective Flux Eo at the Singular Wavelength λo of the CBR

Each radiaton particle has momentum mc.
Its change in momentum on impact and reversal (or absorption and re-emission) at a surface is 2mc.

If radiaton intensity is E (per unit area per unit time) and its frequency f (cycles per unit time), 
its pressure p will then be given by

p  =  2mcEf

Therefore, the total pressure P of the CBR radiatons will simply be the sum of such partial pressures, 
or, from above figure, 
P = 2mc times the sum of Ef = 2mc times the area under the curve shaded red

Now, this red area may be replaced by an equal area Eo(f2 - f1) or Eoc / λo 
where 1 / λo = 1 / λ2 – 1 / λ1

Hence, 

P = 2mc x (red area) = 2mcEoc / λo

or, eliminating P,

Eo  =  Red area x ( λo / c )

Since the red area and λo are directly measurable from the graph, Eo can thus be deduced.
Text Box: If not already obvious, the Casimir effect follows directly from our ultimate concept of gravity here.
"Zero-point field," is the modern and esoteric way of calling the ether or the  vacuum energy (without upsetting diehard relativists!).

Again, to explain basic principles, only the simplest of models are generally used in these pages. 
Here, for the Casimir effect, perhaps the simplest today is the recent wonder material called graphene.
(See next two boxes; check out also the web for the latest on graphene.)
 
Between a pair of graphene sheets in isolation, the Casimir effect should become prominent, where the four valence electrons of each carbon atom of the sheets would dominate the 'breathing' exchanges with the outside vacuum energy field.
Text Box: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
The rise of graphene, A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov (Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester), Nature Materials 6, 183-191 (2007)
Text Box: The stability of two-dimensional (2D) layers and membranes is the subject of a long-standing theoretical debate. ...The discovery of graphene, the first truly 2D crystal5, 6, and the recent experimental observation of ripples in suspended graphene7 make these issues especially important. Besides the academic interest, understanding the mechanisms of the stability of graphene is crucial for understanding electronic transport in this material that is attracting so much interest... We find that ripples spontaneously appear owing to thermal fluctuations...
Intrinsic ripples in graphene, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los & M. I. Katsnelson1 (Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Nature Materials 6, 858-861 (2007)
          Go to Part 4 of 4
THE UNIFICATION OF PHYSICS ILLUSTRATIONS
A Synopsis The Cosmos The Spin
ADDENDA The Cosmological Redshift The Neutrino
Two-Slit Tests The Galaxy Nuclear Reactions
NASA Tests Gravity The Sun
KamLAND Test Anti-Gravity The Pulsar
UCLA Test Relativity Superconductivity
Q and A Mass-Energy Fusion Energy
 Eugene Sittampalam
 27 August 2008