Text Box: One of my guiding principles, also, has been the scientist's motto 'Take nobody's word for it' (nullius in verba), a corollary of which is that if scientists as a whole denounce an idea this should not necessarily be taken as proof that the said idea is absurd: rather, one should examine carefully the alleged grounds for such opinions and judge how well these stand up to detailed scrutiny.
Brian D Josephson (Nobel 1973), Dept of Physics, University of Cambridge; http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10
Text Box: There is no authority who decides what is a good idea. We have lost the need to go to an authority to find out whether an idea is true or not. We can read an authority and let him suggest something; we can try it out and find out if it is true or not. If it is not true, so much the worse — so the "authorities" lose some of their "authority."
Richard Feynman (Nobel 1965), The Meaning of It All, Addison-Wesley (1998); p 21
Text Box: The greatest men of science now recognize that neither the chemistry nor the physics of inert matter is integrally applicable to living matter. Szent-Györgyi, who was awarded the Nobel Prize, expressed this point quite well in his disagreement with the physicists of yesteryear... p 6
Calcium production by plants  Von Herzeele established around 1850 that germinating seeds without a supply of calcium saw a calcium increase in the young plants analysed 30 days after the germinating process. The results were contested because they were contrary to Lavoisier's law. However, the operatory precision von Herzeele employed left no room for doubt. P. Baranger, Chief of the Laboratory of Organic Chemistry at l'Ecole Polytechnique de Paris, thought that von Herzeele's analyses were insufficiently precise, and had the curiosity to conduct the experiment all over again and with all modern scientific rigor. ... Thus scientific proof that calcium can be created in biological reactions [K + H ––> Ca; Mg + O ––> Ca] has been acquired in one of our most celebrated schools. But no interpretation of the phenomenon was offered. pp 39-40
C. Louis Kervran [who was nominated for the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology, but without success], BIOlogical Transmutations, Happiness Press, CA, USA (1998)
Text Box: Nuclear and chemical energy levels
Nucleons and electrons are the sub-c denizens of the mass-energy continuum. They breathe in speed-c mass-energy 
and they breathe the quantum out at steady state, an insight that we have come to fully realize and appreciate in these pages.

Naturally, the environment has influence on the particles' breathing rate and amount. Consequently, the atomic nucleus will also have a certain amplitude of vibration in a given environment. In the right environment, this cyclic departure of the nuclear surface into extranuclear, or chemical energy, space would peak. And should this rhythmic displacement exceed a critical point, a surface quantum would separate from the mother lode. And this takes place at the outer equipotential level for the nuclear quantum ascending.
(For the full text, please see book section 2.10 on equipotential levels and section 2.11 on the phenomenon of "tunneling.")

Furthermore, in certain environments of order and regularity as in a pure or properly composed medium, including chemicals and crystals, classically "forbidden" transitions, transmutations and even exchanges between nuclei at low energies can become distinct possibilities. (The reason why some experiments defy repeatability basically concerns the experimental medium and environment being not quite the same the second time around.)
Text Box: It took ten years, but on page 402 of this issue Hilgenfeldt [Harvard University] et al. are able to explain the tiny dot of light emanating from a solitary, sonically driven bubble, first observed by Felipe Gaitan [University of Mississippi] in 1989. Gaitan had been adjusting the parameters in his apparatus to study a new regime for acoustically levitating a bubble in water... and was surprised to find the bubble emitting what appeared to be a continuous dot of light. Light from sound, or sonoluminescence, was not a new phenomenon, but never had a single bubble been controlled in such a manner. In fact, after careful observation with an appropriate photodetector Gaitan determined that the light was not in fact continuous, but emitted in an extremely brief burst each acoustic cycle [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 3166-3183 (1992)]. That’s 20,000 flashes per second... Seth Putterman immediately realized that this remarkable phenomenon, called single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), might represent new and exciting physics. ...
What is both remarkable and limiting in the sonoluminescence phenomenon is that the stability required to produce the clock-like synchronicity of SBSL depends largely on the behaviour of the bubble while it is relatively large, whereas the light emission occurs when the bubble is close to its smallest size. This coupling of bubble stability and light emission has discouraged researchers from going 'outside the box' to optimize the bubble growth, so as to maximize the internal temperature upon collapse.
Why increase the internal bubble temperature?... Could it reach the conditions that would allow for nuclear (hot) fusion inside the bubble if deuterium gas or a combination of deuterium and tritium gases were inside the bubble? No one can say for sure whether this is possible, and a small community of sonoluminescence researchers is quietly going on with this work, trying to avoid the hype that accompanied the 'cold' fusion claims of ten years ago. If it were possible, this would be table-top micro-thermonuclear fusion as suggested by Willy Moss of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, whose computations helped to clarify the optical emission mechanism of SBSL [Phys. Rev. E 59, 2986-2992 (1999)]. Moss continues to provide guidance to experimentalists searching for what he calls a 'star in a jar'.
And there was light!  Robert Apfel (Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, CT), Nature 398, 378 (1 April 1999)
Text Box: Frequency mixing. In three-wave sum- and difference-frequency mixing, two incident waves at n1 and n2 are converted to a third wave at n3 according to [n3 = n1 ± n2]. The simplest interaction of this type is second-harmonic generation in which n3 = 2n1. 
... By using radiation from pulsed lasers, conversion efficiencies of over 90% have been achieved in second-harmonic generation. With continuous-wave lasers, it is more efficient if the nonlinear crystal is placed in the laser cavity. Conversion efficiencies of over 30% of the internal laser power have been obtained in this way for continuous-wave lasers.
Second-harmonic generation and second-order frequency mixing have been demonstrated at wavelengths ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet, generally coinciding with the transparency range of the nonlinear crystals.
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Physics, Second Edition (1993); pp 851-852
Text Box: Chemical, thermal, sound, and mechanical energy levels
Classical physics describes the photon as the quantum of light and the phonon as the analogous quantum of sound.
In the new light, however, the two are seen not only to be analogous but also to have no fundamental difference. In other words, they are both packets of energy that transfer between individual atoms (and molecules); and since atoms even in the densest solid do not make body-to-body contact at the level of their nuclei or electrons, the photons and phonons that transfer between them do so only at speed c.
Thus, by the same token, any form of energy – chemical, thermal, sound, mechanical, or whatever – that transfer between bodies do so only at speed c and between their subatomic constituents. And sonoluminescence is but a confirmation of that fact, as we shall presently see. (Refer also book section 7.10 on heat transfer and section 7.11 on latent heat.)

Radiowaves, for instance, as we saw in Mass-Energy. link below, is simply a train of pulses of higher-frequency photons. 
Phonons, too, are such regularly pulsed emissions of higher-frequency photons.
In other words, sound waves and radiowaves are fundamentally alike and carry photons at their wavecrests. Since radiowaves travel at speed c, so do also sound waves – between individual atoms. It is the delay in the atom to absorb and reemit the energy (at the atom's own vibrational frequency) that makes the overall speed of sound lower than c, as it is with light in a medium.    

Naturally, these crest photons would behave like any photons of the more familiar electromagnetic spectrum. 
Thus, interference of such crest photons can readily lead to phenomena such as frequency doubling; see the Two-Slit Tests. 
Sonoluminescence is one such instance of constructive interference, where, when intensity of the sound waves (and thereby that of the crest photons) is sufficient, frequency would double even successively (through a suitable medium) to produce heat, light, and energies of even higher frequencies.  

Perhaps, the best home example is microwave oven heating. Here, the crest photons interfere to produce infrared energy , which, in turn, excite (heat) the food water molecules; the water molecules forming bubbles as they boil off. 

The long-range forces of the atom
Let us now conclude with a final look at the atomic frontier and a corroborative piece of Science Research News, below. 
Atoms (and molecules) that are alike breathe (vibrate) alike, with a common frequency, in a given environment; 
and they would tend to rhythmically draw toward each other, their synchronized attraction at long range (over the inhalation half cycle) being more effective than their short-range repulsion (over the exhalation half cycle). At attraction-repulsion counterpoise, or steady state, they are thus generally seen much closer together in relation to the unlike atoms around them. 
This is the fundamental reason why Earth's crust, for example, did not cool down as a homogeneous mix of the various elements –
since nature embraces things harmonious and abhors those that are not.
And the more we appreciate these basic and simple facts of nature, the sooner will science be out of the woods.
        Back to Part 1 of 2
A Synopsis The Cosmos The Spin
ADDENDA The Cosmological Redshift The Neutrino
Two-Slit Tests The Galaxy Nuclear Reactions
NASA Tests Gravity The Sun
KamLAND Test Anti-Gravity The Pulsar
UCLA Test Relativity Superconductivity
Q and A Mass-Energy Fusion Energy
 Eugene Sittampalam
 3 December 2007