To that ultimate end, therefore, kindly consider here a
suggestion for your further thought.
The universal formation process, referred to above, is now
observationally viable (please see also the recent ESO Letters). In this
fractal universe of ours, not surprisingly, the model is extremely simple in
scope. The essentials (taken from my book and web Synopsis) are as follows.
The latticework of the observable universe
Astronomical observations reveal the fact that the large
star ends its active life in a spectacular supernova. The ejected matter from
such exploding nuclear bodies then go to form a new generation of smaller
stars. All these star types we are able to directly observe as discrete bodies
in the firmament and thereby make these correct inferences (see, e.g., Peebles
It is also not inconceivable,
therefore, that the large stars we see today were themselves
once ejected from even larger nuclear entities – the galactic cores. But it is
not possible even with the best of instruments to observe the galactic core
directly to ascertain this process. Whereas the supernova debris eventually
clears to reveal a core, the fog around the galactic center never lifts. As a
result, the nucleus of our own Milky Way Galaxy, for example, remains obscured
at all time by the stars and the gas clouds of what we call the central bulge.
This shroud never dissipates due to the relentless activity within, which feeds
and sustains it. Nevertheless, recent endeavors have revealed to refined
instruments and observational techniques enough evidence to show that the
region of the galactic core is indeed a hub of violent activity of sustained
star formation (Serabyn & Morris 1996).
Not so long ago, the central bulge
was commonly thought to consist mostly of very old stars. But, now, there is
also convincing evidence to suggest that star formation has been occurring near
the center of the bulge throughout the lifetime of the Galaxy. Thus, the most
energetic of expulsions from the galactic core are what we see mostly as stars
and star clusters outside the bulge today.
Extrapolating back in time, a very
close or contiguous union of such galactic cores (that is, in their extremely
active and formative years) is what we observe, in time lapse now, as the
quasar. Quasars and their ilk, collectively known as active galactic nuclei, or
AGN, are the greatest cosmic powerhouses known today. The AGN, in turn, would
evolve from even larger and denser mass centers. The existence of such super
centers, though, is not presently recognized, suspected, or even speculated.
Let us here refer to these ultimate
mass centers, dispersed across observable space, simply as – COSMIC CORES.
Due to the cover provided by the AGN
outside, cosmic cores, too, remain out of direct view like galactic cores. But
here, too, indirectly, there is ample evidence to support such centers in our
observable universe. For example, the cosmic cores would possess most of the
mass in our universe (like atomic nuclei do in a body of matter); and it is
only such extremely massive and compact bodies (in the foreground) that could
possibly account for the otherwise enigmatic gravitational lensing
of (distant) quasars (Fischer et al. 1994).
But what would be the true function
of cosmic cores?
To astronomers and astrophysicists,
especially, the function of cosmic cores should not seem something that is at
all new. Even this aspect of the cosmic process is seen today in miniature down
the line. We say that large stars die in the supernova and generate new stars.
But the first part of this statement we also know is not generally true. That
is to say, the remains of a so-called dead star would live again – for a repeat
death performance another day – if the environment is right: The dense and
extinct core, typically, a neutron star, exerts an enormous gravitational pull
on all that is around in the vicinity and grows by accreting matter; in time,
it would eject matter in a nova- or even a supernova-like event once again. In
principle, therefore, there is no end to these epochs for the selfsame stellar
core – if sufficient matter is (cyclically) provided. In the case of the cosmic
cores dotting our universe, however – there just happens to be sufficient
matter around (from an initial condition) to keep the process going
A Universe of Steady State
In actual fact, the cores of the cosmic latticework feed
each other. That is, they accrete matter, fuse them together, and toss them out
at each other. Matter, from the galaxy supercluster to the atom, is thus
continually recycled in our observable universe. And the cosmic species of the
heavens continue to live on in their eternal splendor.
Evidence for this grandiose and
cyclic mass transfer through cosmic space, too, is very well established now,
though it remains a challenge to today's standard model: The periodicity of
birth of galaxy cluster groups and the uniformity of their spacing and speed
are truly breathtaking that they even make the observers to double-check their
instruments in disbelief! (Smoot & Davidson 1993;
It is thus plainly seen that
galaxies are not scattered more or less randomly through space as had once
seemed the case. Indeed, galaxies are aggregated as sheets of clusters and superclusters . It is like a cosmic
foam where the walls of the bubbles are concentrations of galaxies. As a
balance to these huge concentrations, immense voids also exist between sheets (Saar et al. 2002).
Furthermore, as NASA's Hubble Space
Telescope (HST) continues to confirm only too overwhelmingly, galaxies abound
even at the deepest levels of observable space. Not only did the HST capture
new galaxies in earlier "empty" space, but it also got a better look
at some of the lumpy ones that had been seen before. Seen in the infrared, they
look more like "normal" galaxies, like those in our own cosmic
neighborhood. Clearly, cosmic structures do not seem to have changed over time
across observable space – as if in a steady-state universe (see, for instance,
The concept of the conservation of
energy would also suggest a steady-state universe. Until only as recently as a
decade ago it was difficult to reconcile all of the observed data to a
steady-state universe. But, now, the powerful telescopes of the present day
throw to us much more light than they receive. And, in
this most revealing new light since the time of Einstein,
we see the awe-inspiring final picture emerging.
Every celestial body has a closed-loop
trajectory beginning in a cosmic core and ending in a neighboring one only to
be regenerated, or, to be born again. And a steady-state universe would go on
existing, ceaselessly, under the setting...
How it all began and how it all
will end are outside the realm of observation. They,
thereby, remove themselves also outside the scope of physics.
(References listed in Synopsis.)
Thank you for your valuable time; I'm confident it will not
be found a waste.