Letter to the Editors



Date:       12 December 2005

To:          Astronomy & Astrophysics <aal@aanda.astro.uni-bonn.de>, <aanda.paris@obspm.fr>

               Astrophysical Journal          <apj@as.arizona.edu>

               Nature                                  <nature@nature.com>

               Physical Review D               <prd@aps.org> <prd@ridge.aps.org>

               Science                                 <science_editors@aaas.org>

Subject:   Fwd: Formation of stars


Dear Esteemed Editors,

Kindly accept the forwarded material for your reference.


Observations ever increasingly seem to call for a change in mainstream thought. Hope future journal publications will reflect a more accommodative and impartial trend toward that greater principled channel.

Thank you.


Eugene Sittampalam



---------- Forwarded message ----------

Date:       11 December 2005
To:          acf@ast.cam.ac.uk, jss@ast.cam.ac.uk
Subject:   Fwd: Formation of stars


Prof Andrew C Fabian

Dr Jeremy S Sanders

Institute of Astronomy

University of Cambridge


Dear Esteemed Researchers,

Chandra Proves Black Hole Influence Is Far Reaching


We continue to miss the forest for the trees, though Chandra progresses with its revelations for the larger picture.


"The cluster contains thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud... with the mass equivalent of trillions of suns." Isn't this insight a beautiful way of connecting the galaxy cluster to the quasar, though the latter be beyond the scope of this study?


The galaxy cluster was once a quasar. What we see now as "the giant galaxy [NGC 1275] in the center of the cluster" is the remnant quasar mass, which could still be undergoing (violent) fragmentation. The "discovered evidence of energetic plumes – particles that extend 300,000 light years into [the] massive cluster of galaxies" is clearly the telltale sign of the fragmentation process. For more, please be good enough to accept also the material forwarded below for perusal.

Thank you and best regards,

Eugene Sittampalam



---------- Forwarded message ----------

Date:          8 December 2005
To:             krumholz@astro.princeton.edu, cmckee@astro.berkeley.edu, klein@radhydro.berkeley.edu
 Subject:     Formation of stars


"...Instead, stars form by fragmentation, and the fragmentation process determines their masses." Mark Krumholz.

A universal formation process might also explain why the mass distribution of newly formed stars – the initial mass function – seems to be constant throughout our galaxy and other galaxies.

How do stars form? PhysicsWeb, 16 November 2005; and Nature 438, 322


Dr Mark Krumholz

Princeton University


Prof Christopher McKee

University of California at Berkeley


Prof Richard Klein

Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


Dear Esteemed Researchers,

It was encouraging to read Dr Krumholz's above comments. Hopefully, it is indicative of what might now be a general trend in mainstream thought. Nevertheless, his unwavering words do send us a clear message that physics is an empirical science and should be rid of observationally unsupportive old notions in its quest for unification.


To that ultimate end, therefore, kindly consider here a suggestion for your further thought.


The universal formation process, referred to above, is now observationally viable (please see also the recent ESO Letters). In this fractal universe of ours, not surprisingly, the model is extremely simple in scope. The essentials (taken from my book and web Synopsis) are as follows.


The latticework of the observable universe

Astronomical observations reveal the fact that the large star ends its active life in a spectacular supernova. The ejected matter from such exploding nuclear bodies then go to form a new generation of smaller stars. All these star types we are able to directly observe as discrete bodies in the firmament and thereby make these correct inferences (see, e.g., Peebles 1993).

    It is also not inconceivable, therefore, that the large stars we see today were themselves once ejected from even larger nuclear entities – the galactic cores. But it is not possible even with the best of instruments to observe the galactic core directly to ascertain this process. Whereas the supernova debris eventually clears to reveal a core, the fog around the galactic center never lifts. As a result, the nucleus of our own Milky Way Galaxy, for example, remains obscured at all time by the stars and the gas clouds of what we call the central bulge. This shroud never dissipates due to the relentless activity within, which feeds and sustains it. Nevertheless, recent endeavors have revealed to refined instruments and observational techniques enough evidence to show that the region of the galactic core is indeed a hub of violent activity of sustained star formation (Serabyn & Morris 1996).

    Not so long ago, the central bulge was commonly thought to consist mostly of very old stars. But, now, there is also convincing evidence to suggest that star formation has been occurring near the center of the bulge throughout the lifetime of the Galaxy. Thus, the most energetic of expulsions from the galactic core are what we see mostly as stars and star clusters outside the bulge today.

    Extrapolating back in time, a very close or contiguous union of such galactic cores (that is, in their extremely active and formative years) is what we observe, in time lapse now, as the quasar. Quasars and their ilk, collectively known as active galactic nuclei, or AGN, are the greatest cosmic powerhouses known today. The AGN, in turn, would evolve from even larger and denser mass centers. The existence of such super centers, though, is not presently recognized, suspected, or even speculated.

    Let us here refer to these ultimate mass centers, dispersed across observable space, simply as – COSMIC CORES.

    Due to the cover provided by the AGN outside, cosmic cores, too, remain out of direct view like galactic cores. But here, too, indirectly, there is ample evidence to support such centers in our observable universe. For example, the cosmic cores would possess most of the mass in our universe (like atomic nuclei do in a body of matter); and it is only such extremely massive and compact bodies (in the foreground) that could possibly account for the otherwise enigmatic gravitational lensing of (distant) quasars (Fischer et al. 1994).

    But what would be the true function of cosmic cores?

    To astronomers and astrophysicists, especially, the function of cosmic cores should not seem something that is at all new. Even this aspect of the cosmic process is seen today in miniature down the line. We say that large stars die in the supernova and generate new stars. But the first part of this statement we also know is not generally true. That is to say, the remains of a so-called dead star would live again – for a repeat death performance another day – if the environment is right: The dense and extinct core, typically, a neutron star, exerts an enormous gravitational pull on all that is around in the vicinity and grows by accreting matter; in time, it would eject matter in a nova- or even a supernova-like event once again. In principle, therefore, there is no end to these epochs for the selfsame stellar core – if sufficient matter is (cyclically) provided. In the case of the cosmic cores dotting our universe, however – there just happens to be sufficient matter around (from an initial condition) to keep the process going indefinitely.


A Universe of Steady State

In actual fact, the cores of the cosmic latticework feed each other. That is, they accrete matter, fuse them together, and toss them out at each other. Matter, from the galaxy supercluster to the atom, is thus continually recycled in our observable universe. And the cosmic species of the heavens continue to live on in their eternal splendor.

    Evidence for this grandiose and cyclic mass transfer through cosmic space, too, is very well established now, though it remains a challenge to today's standard model: The periodicity of birth of galaxy cluster groups and the uniformity of their spacing and speed are truly breathtaking that they even make the observers to double-check their instruments in disbelief! (Smoot & Davidson 1993; Matthews 1996).

    It is thus plainly seen that galaxies are not scattered more or less randomly through space as had once seemed the case. Indeed, galaxies are aggregated as sheets of clusters and superclusters . It is like a cosmic foam where the walls of the bubbles are concentrations of galaxies. As a balance to these huge concentrations, immense voids also exist between sheets (Saar et al. 2002).

    Furthermore, as NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continues to confirm only too overwhelmingly, galaxies abound even at the deepest levels of observable space. Not only did the HST capture new galaxies in earlier "empty" space, but it also got a better look at some of the lumpy ones that had been seen before. Seen in the infrared, they look more like "normal" galaxies, like those in our own cosmic neighborhood. Clearly, cosmic structures do not seem to have changed over time across observable space – as if in a steady-state universe (see, for instance, Schilling 1999).

    The concept of the conservation of energy would also suggest a steady-state universe. Until only as recently as a decade ago it was difficult to reconcile all of the observed data to a steady-state universe. But, now, the powerful telescopes of the present day throw to us much more light than they receive. And, in this most revealing new light since the time of Einstein, we see the awe-inspiring final picture emerging.

    Every celestial body has a closed-loop trajectory beginning in a cosmic core and ending in a neighboring one only to be regenerated, or, to be born again. And a steady-state universe would go on existing, ceaselessly, under the setting...

    How it all began and how it all will end are outside the realm of observation. They, thereby, remove themselves also outside the scope of physics.


(References listed in Synopsis.)


Thank you for your valuable time; I'm confident it will not be found a waste.


Eugene Sittampalam



----- End of letter -----


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